Yesterday it was pouring whole day so I stayed inside and spent majority of the day studying languages. A mixture of a few.
I started Speak Chinese Today and wrote down first dialogue.
It’s just a dialogue, I had to take a break before tackling down grammar. The first grammar lesson introduces particles. It mentions main four I learnt in class: 啊，马，了，呢.
I learnt that these particles has more meanings than I knew.
了 indicates change.
我病了-I am sick (I was fine yesterday)
Now I know that it can be used for “yes or no” questions using same words in answer whether positive or negative: 关门了吗？关了。-Is it closed? (Yes), it is closed.
马 is interrogative particle in “yes or no” questions.
你喝咖啡吗？-Do you drink coffee?
Well, nothing new here.
啊 is sentence final particle used to sound “less abrupt or brusque”. Reminds me of Japanese が usage.
Now I see that it’s more difficult than that because of changing syllables. And it has more usages: greeting, explaining, commanding, warning, reminding.
呢 I knew as -ing.
他睡觉呢。-He is sleeping.
It can indicate obvious facts.
我昨天晚上睡得才好呢！-I slept very well indeed last night (contrary to what you think)
Added to interrogative sentences to seek particular information.
这是什么呢？-What is this(anyway)?
Question marker to mean “How about..?”, “Where is..?”
他去，你呢？-He is going, how about you? (I knew this usage)
我的书呢？-Where is my book?
I’m really enjoying this book ^^
I mentioned I’m using Teach Yourself series for most languages. Each chapter has few dialogues (which I wrote down) and tasks (which I usually skip or read a little) but Teach Yourself Swedish also had a text.
I ignored English translation, wrote down text and marked unknown words, then their translation and understood everything.
This is a bit late and off topic but so happy Sweden won Eurovision after one year again. I loved the previous and this song and feel so proud of them. Some polyglot said he’ll learn the language of the country that wins. Me too, me too…
I hope everyone is enjoying their language learning.